[% setvar title Positional Return Lists Considered Harmful %]
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Positional Return Lists Considered Harmful
Maintainer: Jarkko Hietaniemi <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: 5 Aug 2000 Mailing List: email@example.com Number: 37 Version: 2 Status: Developing
Perl has traditionally returned from various functions long (>2) lists of values. Some traditions are simply bad.
Functions like stat() and get*ent() return long lists of mysterious values. The implementation is assumedly easy: just push some values out of C structs into the Perl return stack.
Wrong. And once more, wrong.
Firstly, who can remember which one of the stat() return values was the atime or which is the 4th return value of localtime()? The perlfunc gmtime/localtime documentation makes this difficulty painfully obvious by having to list the indices alongside the values.
Secondly, the current solution is seriously non-extensible. One cannot easily add new return values to the APIs because someone may be expecting an exact number of return values, or someone may be accessing the values by position from the end of the list Obsoleting values (or marking them as non-applicable to the current platform) has to be done by for examples returning undef.
The solution is simple: return hashes instead of lists. Yes, one still has to know how the fields are named, so the proposed solution is still not perfect.
caller  getgrent getgrnam getgrgid gethostbyaddr gethostbyname gethostent getnetbyaddr getnetbyname getnetent getprotobyname getprotobynumber getprotoent getpwent getpwnam getpwuid getservbyname getservbyport getservent gmtime localtime stat
 I guess the whole semantics and functionality of caller() is severely up for grabs for Perl6.
For the get*() mafia, it is also debatable whether aping the C interface is a good thing and worth preserving as such at all. The preferred interface might be tied hashes. This interface might also more naturally support non-POSIX operating systems with their own native semantics, or POSIX operating systems with extended semantics like higher security user databases.
perlfunc File::stat User::grent User::pwent